Many diseases that affect the human body can be prevented by using different measures. Healthy lifestyle, good immunity and prevention of chronic diseases are general measures. More specific measures against infections include vaccination and immunization. Administration of vaccines provides either active or passive immunity.
Vaccines containing attenuated forms of the infectious agent stimulate body’s own immune system to develop long term immunity against the agent. Passive immunity is created by injecting substances that neutralize the effect of infection. The choice of type of vaccine depends on the severity of infection. Active immunity is stimulated before the onset of infection. Passive immunity is an essential part of treatment of ongoing illness.
Vaccines have become an essential part of modern medicine. Administration of vaccines at a large level potentially eradicates the disease for the area. Small pox infection of humans has been eradicated from the world by use of vaccines. Neonates receive a regular course of vaccines against particular offending agents. Unimmunized children often develop severe diseases with developmental delay. The scientific research into synthesis of vaccines is essential for maintenance of human health.
Vaccines are classified on the basis of their composition. They contain live, killed or attenuated organisms that stimulate an immune response in the body. They can cause a mild illness upon administration first. Research is ongoing to improve the quality and effects of various vaccines.
They also contain adjuvant substances that provide a synergistic effect with the vaccine itself. Such substances serve many functions.
Aluminum salts are extensively used as adjuvants. They provide a reservoir for the vaccine substance in the bloodstream. Their use increases the extent of immune reaction produced and thus immunity against the offending agent. Efforts are ongoing to study its effect and increase the efficacy. Addition of other particles like nitric oxide increases the overall efficacy by inducing a faster immune reaction.
Sjaikhurrizal El Muttaqien and his team studied the toxic effects of aluminium hydroxide nanoparticle as an adjuvant vaccine candidate in rats. Three different samples including Al(OH)3, Al(OH)3 microparticle (Mp) and Al(OH)3 nanoparticle (Np) were used in experiments. The study was conducted in May-April 2019 in Animal and Pharmacology laboratories, Serpong. It showed the safety of Al(OH)3 as an adjuvant vaccine candidate.