Livestock productivity is largely determined by the quality and quantity of feed consumed. Feed quality includes the content of nutrients, such as energy, protein, minerals and vitamins and the content of anti-nutritive substances such as tannins, lignins and other secondary compounds1.
Given the important role of rumen microbial protein as a supplement for the host animal, efforts to maximize the production of microbes in the rumen by optimizing conducive environmental conditions are necessary. Cattle reared on traditional farms generally experience feed shortages, as the amount of feed provided is usually less than the amount needed low quality and rarely supplemented with additional food or concentrates2.
The shortage can be diminished or reduced through the supplementation of feed with protein sources such as Moringaoleifera leaves that contain high levels of protein and all essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals in high concentrations3. Moreover in order to improve the performance of rumen microbes, sulfur, which functions as a co-factor in the synthesis of rumen microbial protein, must be added.
Rumen fermentation processes will not occur in the absence of microorganisms that produce enzymes to digest food products. Therefore, protein synthesis by rumen microbes is an indicator of the kinematics of rumen fermentation4.
Moringa leaves are one source of nitrogen for the synthesis of proteins by rumen microorganisms. This synthesis is more effective with the presence of sulfur as a cofactor because sulfur is a component of the amino acids cysteine and methionine5 and sulfur is an important component of rumen bacteria6. Information on the combined use of Moringaoleifera leaves and sulfur to increase the activity of celluloses and amylase in bovine rumen fluid has not been reported. It was therefore necessary to conduct a study of the proper combination of Moringaoleifera leaves and sulfur to increase the activity of cellulases and amylase in bovine rumen fluid7.
The increased activity of cellulases and amylase following supplementation with Moringaoleifera leaves and sulfur is promising for beef cattle farming, because it can increase livestock productivity. Increased livestock productivity leads to higher incomes and better farmer welfare. The results of the study can be applied directly to the farming of beef cattle and recommend the addition of 20% Moringaoleifera leaves and 0.4% sulfur (based on the concentration of dry matter) into the feed.
Moringaoleifera, sulfur, enzymatic activities of protease, cellulases and amylase, dry matter, feed concentration, cattle farming, cellulose, nutrition.
- Jouany, J. P. (1994). Methods of manipulating the microbial metabolism in the rumen. In Annales de zootechnie (Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 49-62).
- Ensminger, M.E., J.E. Oldfield and W.W. Heinemann, 1990.Feeds and Nutrition. 2nd Edn.,Ensminger Publishing Company, Clovis, CA., USA., Pages: 1552.
- Teixeira, E.M.B., M.R.B. Carvalho, V.A. Neves, M.A. Silva and L. Arantes-Pereira, 2014. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringaoleifera leaves. Food Chem., 147: 51-54.
- Bijina, B., S. Chellappan, S.M. Basheer, K.K. Elyas, A.H. Bahkali and M. Chandrasekaran, 2011. Protease inhibitor from Moringaoleifera leaves: Isolation, purification and characterization. Process Biochem., 46: 2291-2300.
- Hungate, R.E., 1966. The Rumen and its Microbes. Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd., New York and London, ISBN: 978-1-4832-3308-6, pp: 353-374.
- Bird, P.R., 1973. Sulphur metabolism and excretion studies in ruminants XII. Nitrogen and sulphur composition of ruminal bacteria. J. Biol. Sci., 26: 1429-1434.
- M. Suhartati and W. Suryapratama, 2017. Increasing the In Vitro Enzymatic Activity of Cellulase and Amylase from Beef Cattle Rumen Fluid Supplemented with Moringaoleifera Leaves and Sulfur. Pak. J. Nutr., 16: 571-576.