Fitness is the desire of every individual now a day. The body mass index (BMI) is a formula to measure the weight-to-height ratio of a person to check his fitness level. A high BMI is considered overweight or obese. Obesity is defined as a condition of unnecessary accumulation of fat in the body that may impair health. Purnell (2018) informed that overweight is a condition with a BMI of >25 kg m–2, while obesity is defined as a condition with a BMI of >30 kg m–2 as per WHO European BMI classification. For Asian countries, the WHO has lowered the BMI cut-off to >23.5 kg m–2 for overweight and >27 kg m–2 for obesity.
An obesity and high BMI are considered major problems in the contemporary age. These issues are not only common in high-income countries but urban areas of low-to-middle-income countries also affected by these health issues. A sedentary lifestyle and higher consumption of food especially junk food are the core factors that bring obesity. Obesity linked with many health issues especially metabolic disorders that ultimately lead to chronic illness and death. Besides this, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke, cancer, coronary artery disease, etc are the known factors associated with obesity.
One of the main patho physiological variations in obesity is the accumulation of excess weight and fat (adipocytes). Kyrou et al. (2018) informed that the accumulation of adipocytes is known to play a role in insulin resistance that becomes a cause of various diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus. Other than physical health, obesity also affects both mental and social health like mood disorders and low self-esteem.
In contrast to obesity, Lorem et al. (2017) defined the underweight as a BMI < 18.5 kg m–2. In 2016, 8.9% of people worldwide were underweight. Being underweight also associated with many health issues especially cardiovascular diseases and depression. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as the occurrence of three or more consecutive pregnancy loss. Both malnutrition and high BMI are correlated with infertility, including RPL.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition published an article in which Utami et al. (2020) determine the connection between high BMI and RPL on the basis of available literature. They found that high BMI is linked with the incidence of RPL. The possible mechanisms are disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis, endometrial receptivity, oocyte quality, and inflammatory markers.