High Proportion Concentrate with Tofu Waste in Dairy Goats


High Proportion Concentrate with Tofu Waste in Dairy Goats

The contribution of dairy goats to meet the demand for milk has recently increased especially in Indonesia. One limitation dairy goat farmers face is limited forage, which can be affected by several factors, including farm size and labor availability. In response to such limitations, farmers often seek alternative feeds to substitute for forage.

A high proportion of forage in dairy goat feed increases milk production, milk fat and decreases ruminal acidity. However, as with other forages, the availability of Calliandra (standard feed product) decreases during the dry season. Thus, alternative, supplementary feed is needed to sustain milk production throughout the year1.

Several food by-products are available in rural areas, including tofu waste, which farmers commonly purchase from tofu processing plants. Tofu waste has economic benefit due to its low price and continuous availability. With an optimum amount of protein and fiber content tofu waste is a good source of protein and fiber and thus is used as a concentrate in feed for pigs and dairy cows, Muscovy ducks and steers2.

In this context researchers carried out a new study in which they assessed the effect of feeding a high proportion concentrate containing tofu waste on nutrient consumption, milk production, BC score and the length of the postpartum mating (PPM) period of goats. Results from the study provided useful information about food by-products as sources of protein and fiber to provide adequate nutrition and maintain milk production by dairy goats, as well as demonstrated the usefulness of tofu waste as a substitute for forage3.

According to results, the proportion of concentrate was as high as 55% of total feed dry matter for Diet B. No significant differences were observed in milk production or body condition score for high and low proportion concentrates. Decreases in dry matter intake could be related to the physical properties of tofu waste, which is wet, such that upon consumption the water volume in the rumen would increase and in turn depress subsequent consumption of leguminous leaves to reduce dry matter intake.

Feeding high proportion concentrates containing tofu waste in the diet significantly (p<0.05) decreased dry matter and crude protein intake of lactating goats but did not affect crude fiber and total digestible nutrients consumption. Tofu waste could be used as a substitute for leguminous material as a source of protein and crude fiber. Feeding high proportion concentrates containing tofu waste did not affect milk production or BC score but did prolong the PPM period. Thus, the proportion of tofu waste can be reduced to avoid negative effects of phyto-estrogens contained in the tofu waste on reproductive performance.


Nutrient consumption, high proportion concentrate, tofu waste, milk production, body conditions, reproductive performance, body condition, leguminous material, crude fiber, phyto-estrogens, total digestible nutrients, lactating goats, dry matter.


  1. Abqoriyah, R. Utomo and B. Suwignyo, 2015. Productivity of Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) as a forage in the different defoliation time. Buletin Peternakan, 39: 103-108.
  2. Asminaya, N.S., B.P. Purwanto, Nahrowi, W.A. Ridwan and A. Atabany, 2017. Milk yield and nutrient adequacy of lactating dairy cow fed based on tofu waste, soybean hulls and straw. J. Sci. Res., 6: 951-956.
  3. Suranindyah, Y.Y., Rochijan, Adiarto, Widyobroto, B.P., Astuti, S.D. and Murti, T.W., 2018. Effect of Feeding High Proportion Concentrates Containing Tofu Waste on Nutrient Consumption, Milk Production, Body Condition Score and Postpartum Mating Period of Dairy Goats in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. J. Nutr., 17: 702-708.