Heart failure has affected 26 million people worldwide, and is a major cause of mortality in hospitalized elderly patients, and isa major challenge in terms of cost. With increasing prevalence, early diagnosis can help improve prognosis and cut costs. Its clinical picture varies greatly from dyspnea, edema to acute pain, etc. which is why its identification and diagnosis has relied upon the detection of specific biomarkers. (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α) TNF- α is an essential tool to recognize heart failure. Scientists at ICMAB and IMB_CNM have developed a portable rapid diagnostic device for easy and early detection of heart failure through saliva using nanotechnology.
With the huge burden of disease, Ischemic heart disease has been a major cause of death according to WHO calculations. The synthesis of a quick heat failure detection tool enhances both diagnosis and treatment. Previously blood analysis was done to quantify the TNF- αprotein and other biomarkers but this sensor will change everything by quickly separating and identify biomarker through saliva sample of the patient. The basic composition is of microelectronic system, which is integrated with sensors, biochemicals, and magnetic nanoparticles.
The microelectronic biosensor-based silicon nitride, the ImminoFET is manufactured at the Institute of Microelectronic of Barcelona. Which consists ofan ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), that has the potential for sensing TNF- α. It is tested both on artificial and human saliva and has successfully demonstrated a high sensitivity to the concentration of TNF- α. The biosensor devices have been combined on a chip to let it perform a whole immuno assay for calculating TNF- α protein concentrations. The sensitivityof this system has been increased by using intrinsic electronic amplification properties of the transistor used in it.
The magnetic nanoparticles used in the device have been constructed at the Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona. They constructed the magnetic nanoparticles to do a pre-concentration, since the concentration of TNF- α proteinis less in the saliva than in the blood, so these nanoparticles functionalized the device with adequate antibodies. Another important point for these nanoparticles to function properly is to not let them precipitate and keep them circulating in the microfluidic channels to allow the particles to be stable.
One great advantage of this automatic, portable, rapid diagnostic device doesn’t need any specialized training and is very simple to operate. Its efficiency is the biggest benefit that can readily indicate heart failure without spending a lot of time, money, and effort and going through much trouble.
In addition to the great potential for direct and fast detection of TNF- α protein in saliva, this device allows for better monitoring of cardiac failure. This tool will be of great help to the doctors in evaluating and planning the efficacy of different treatment regimens as per the patient’s need. Through extensive research this device has proved to be non-invasive, rapid, and accurate for assessment of Tumor Necrosis Factor – α, and are hopefully in the future, it will be a part of routine diagnosis of cardiac failure.
Heart failure, diagnosis, (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α) TNF- α, rapid diagnostic device, biosensor, ImmunoFET, sensitivity, saliva analysis, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET).